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Permasalahan DPT Dan Partisipasi Politik

Oleh: Ali Akbar Ritonga S.H.I

Daftar Pemilih Tetap (DPT) adalah suatu bagian penting yang terdapat dalam Pemilukada maupun Pemilu DPRD, DPR, DPD dan pemilihan presiden dan wakil presiden. DPT adalah sebagai pemberi suara yang akan menentukan nasib dari calon pemimpin daerah yang menjadi daerah pemilihannya. Maka dari itu, DPT ditetapkan KPU selaku penyelenggara tekhnis merupakan sebagai alat penting dan indikator unutk menentukan suksesnya pelaksanaan pemilu tersebut.

Permasalahan DPT banyak terjadi dalam setiap Pemilu maupun Pemilukada yang menyebabkan kurangnya antusias DPT itu sendiri, masalah DPT ganda, maslah hasil yang tidak sesuai dengan DPT yang dimiliki tim sukses masing-masing calon dan lain sebagainya. Setiap tahun daftar pemilih tetap semakin bertambah dikarenakan semakin banyaknya para pemilih pemula yang terdaftar sebagai DPT baru. Namun, sayangnya tren kenaikan jumlah pemilih tidak sebanding dengan partisipasi politik pemilih.

Partisipasi politik justru menurun, Penurunan partisipasi politik tersebut hingga rata-rata 20% – 40%. Hal ini dikarenakan bahwa para pemilih pemula ataupun pemilih lama merasa bahwa suara mereka untuk Pemilu tidak besar mempengaruhi hasil Pemilu itu sendiri. Pada situasi psikologis politis seperti ini kita mendorong KPU membersihkan daftar pemilih tetap (DPT) yang dianggap bermasalah.

Bermasalah dalam arti DPT tidak terdapat nomor induk kependudukan (NIK) yang standar. Padahal kehadiran KTP elektronik dengan satu nomor identitas seharusnya bisa mencegah manipulasi data diri.

Permasalahan DPT akan berdampak pada meningkatnya masyarakat Golongan Putih (Golput). Sikap masyarakat yang seperti itu wajar saja terjadi mengingat semrawutnya DPT yang tak kunjung terselesaikan. Sikap apatis masyarakat itulah yang pada akhirnya membuat pemilu terancam gagal.

Sebab, ketika apatisme masyarakat semakin tinggi dan luas terhadap pelaksanaan pemilu mengingat DPT-nya yang bermasalah, dengan sendirinya angka golput akan tinggi pula.

Ada berbagai faktor yang berdampak munculnya DPT bermasalah. Karenanya, masalah ini memang tidak bisa sepenuhnya diserahkan kepada KPU dan Bawaslu dalam Pengawasan terhadap pemilu merupakan kewajiban dan kewenangan seluruh pemangku kepentingan, termasuk parpol dan pasangan calon. Kisruh soal jumlah DPT ini sekaligus menjadi sinyalemen bahwa parpol ikut terlibat untuk menjamin hak politik masyarakat.

Semangat rakyat Indonesia untuk berpartisipasi dalam dunia politik harus digairahkan, memilih adalah hak bukan kewajiban. KPU dan partai politik harus ikut mendorong pemilih apatis menjadi pemilih partisipatif dengan menghadirkan caleg dan pemimpin yang memberikan harapan baru, bukan sekedar janji-janji manis belaka.

Maka dari itu, dibutuhkan pemerintah dalam hal ini adalah Direktorat Kependudukan dan Pencatatan Sipil Kementrian Dalam Negeri untuk menghasilkan data kependudukan yang baik, benar dan akurat berupa data e-KTP yang sedang dibuat.

Hal ini dibutuhkan untuk membantu KPU  dalam hal ini dalam menentukan DPT yang akurat dan yang terpenting benar tanpa ada permasalahan seperti data ganda dan lain-lain. Dengan begitu, tidak ada lagi masalah DPT yang menjadi penyakit Pemilu agar tidak ada lagi sengketa hasil Pemilu dan dapat diselesaikan tepat waktu.

Untuk masalah DPT mengenai angka golput yang tinggi pada setiap Pemilu, diperlukan solusi tepat sasaran untuk mengurangi angka golput. Solusi tepat sasaran untuk mengurangi angka DPT yang golput yaitu adalah sosialisasi tentang Pemilu yang sangat gencar melalui media apa saja seperti media sosial, cetak dan digital. KPU harus membuat sosialisasi yang menarik terutama DPT pemula atau pemilih pemula yang baru pertama kali mendapatkan hak pilih untuk menggunakan hak pilih mereka dalam Pemilu di daerah mereka.

Dengan kedua solusi diatas, semoga demokrasi masyarakat Indonesia untuk memilih pemimpin dan wakil mereka menjadi sukses dan tanpa ada permasaslahan sehingga para pempih (DPT) mendapatkan hasil pilihan mereka yang terbaik tanpa ada kisruh dalam pelaksanaan dan hasil akhirnya.

Penyelewengan Dalam Pilkada

Dalam pelaksanaan pilkada pasti ada yang menang dan ada yang kalah. Seringkali bagi pihak yang kalah tidak dapat menerima kekalahannya dengan lapang dada. Sehingga dia akan mengerahkan massanya untuk mendatangi KPU setempat. Hal ini membuktikan sangat rendahnya kesadaran politik masyarakat. Sehingga dari KPU sebelum melaksanakan pemilihan umum, sering kali melakukan Ikrar siap menang dan siap kalah. Namun tetap saja timbul masalah masalah tersebut.

Dalam pelaksanaan pilkada di lapangan banyak sekali ditemukan penyelewengan-penyelewengan. Kecurangan ini dilakukan oleh para bakal calon seperti :

– Money politik

Money politik ini selalu saja menyertai dalam setiap pelaksanaan pilkada. Dengan memanfaatkan masalah ekonomi masyarakat yang cenderung masih rendah, maka dengan mudah mereka dapat diperalat dengan mudah.

– Intimidasi

Intimidasi ini juga sangat bahaya. Sebagai contoh yaitu pegawai pemerintah melakukan intimidasi terhadap warga agar mencoblos salah satu calon. Hal ini sangat menyeleweng dari aturan pelaksanaan pemilu.

– Pendahuluan start kampanye

Tindakan ini paling sering terjadi. Padahal sudah sangat jelas aturan-aturan yang berlaku dalam pemilu tersebut. Berbagai cara dilakukan seperti pemasangan baliho, spanduk, selebaran.

– Kampanye negatif

Kampanye negatif ini dapat timbul karena kurangnya sosialisasi bakal calon kepada masyarakat. Hal ini dikarenakan sebagian masyarakat masih kurang terhadap pentingnya informasi. Jadi mereka hanya ikut dengan orang yang di sekitar mereka yang menjadi panutannya. Kampanye negatif ini dapat mengarah pada munculnya fitnah yang dapat merusak integritas daerah tersebut.

Dalam melaksanakan sesuatu pasti ada kendala yang harus dihadapi. Tetapi kita dapat meminimalkan kendala-kendala itu. Untuk itulah diperlukan peran dan serta masyarakat karena ini tidak hanya tanggung jawab pemerintah saja. Untuk menanggulangi permasalah yang timbul dalam pilkada bisa ditempuh dengan cara sebagai berikut :

Seluruh pihak yang ada baik dari daerah sampai pusat, bersama sama menjaga ketertiban dan kelancaran pelaksanaan pilkada ini. Tokoh tokoh masyarakat yang merupakan panutan dapat menjadi suri tauladan bagi masyarakatnya. Dengan ini maka dapat menghindari munculnya konflik.

Semua warga saling menghargai pendapat. Dalam berdemokrasi wajar jika muncul perbedaan pendapat satu sama lain namun hal ini diharapkan tidak menimbulkan konflik. Dengan kesadaran menghargai pendapat orang lain, maka pelaksanaan pilkada dapat berjalan dengan lancar.

Meningkatkan sosialisasi kepada warga. Dengan adanya sosialisasi ini diharapkan masyarakat dapat memperoleh informasi yang akurat. Sehingga menghindari kemungkinan fitnah terhadap calon yang lain.

Memilih dengan hati nurani. Dalam memilih calon kita harus memilih dengan hati nurani sendiri tanpa ada paksaan dari orang lain. Sehingga prinsip prinsip dari pemilu dapat terlaksana dengan baik.

Bangsa yang belajar adalah bangsa yang setiap waktu berbenah diri. Pemerintah Indonesia telah berusaha membenahi sistem yang telah ada dengan landasan untuk mengedepankan kepentingan rakyat.

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